Technology Bundle ID: TAB-3392

Handwipe Disclosing Method for Detecting the Presence of Lead

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Licensing Contact:
Primary Inventors: 
Eric Esswein (CDC)
Co-Inventors: 
Kevin Ashley (CDC), Mark Boeniger (CDC)
Development Stage: 
Prototype
Institute or Center: 
CDC

Lead (Pb) exposure can cause serious health concerns including abdominal pain, headaches, loss of appetite, memory loss, weakness, and other symptoms. Lead residues on human skin, especially on the hands of workers can be a significant health risk since such residues may be ingested during normal activities (e.g. eating, drinking, and smoking). A key component to reducing lead exposure is being able to identify areas of lead contamination.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers developed a method to detect lead on surfaces, including skin, using a handwipe system and a chemical test to effect a color change if lead is present. A handwipe is used to collect any lead contamination on the surface. Then the lead is solubilized with an aqueous acid solution and treated with rhodizonate or sulfide anions. When lead is detected, the color changes from pink to red (when rhodizonate anions are used) or from brown to black (where sulfide anions are used).

This invention can be used to test surfaces including human skin, floors, walls, windowsills, etc. It can be used to inform employers and workers on potential lead contamination, as well as evaluate lead removal efforts. This technology can also be used in conjunction with another CDC NIOSH invention involving wipes and methods for removal of lead. Combined, these two technologies can “close the loop” by both detecting and decontaminating skin and other surfaces contaminated with lead.

Applications:
  • Testing potentially contaminated surfaces such as skin, floors, walls, windowsills, etc., for lead
  • Informing employers and workers on potential lead contamination and exposure
  • Educating potentially exposed individuals about their lead exposure and effectiveness of lead removal methods
  • Evaluating effectiveness of lead removal from surfaces in workplaces, homes, hospitals, and schools
  • Confirming hand/skin/shoe/clothing washing effectiveness of lead removal for military, law enforcement, and target range personnel
  • Part of a kit for detecting and removing lead from a surface (when combined with CDC NIOSH’s wipes and methods for removing lead and other metal contamination from surfaces technology (HHS Reference Number E-221-2013-0))
Advantages:
  • Safe for use on skin
  • Quick and easy to use
  • -

  • Portable and can be used during field evaluations
  • Can be used wherever lead is present
  • Simple color change readout indicates the presence of lead on a surface
  • Lead concentration can be inferred by degree of color shift
  • Can be used to guide and evaluate lead removal methods

Patents

PCT Application PCT/US98/011776
Filed on 1998-06-08
US Application 60/049,352
Filed on 1997-06-11
US Pat 6,248,593

Issued 2001-06-19

Publications

Ashley K, et al. (2011). Evaluation of a handwipe disclosing method for lead. Journal of ATSM International, 8(4).
https://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/JOURNALS/JAI/PAGES/JAI103390.htm
Ashley K. (2010) Field-Portable Methods for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Metals. Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, 17(3), 22-28.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871553209000796
Esswein E., & Boeniger M. (2005). Preventing the Toxic Hand-Off. Occupational Hazards, 67(9).
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311667267
Esswein, EJ et al. Handwipe method for removing lead from skin. Journal of ATSM International, 8(5).
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239522749_Handwipe_method_for_removing_lead_from_skin
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition. Method 9105, Issue 1 - Lead in Dust Wipes by Chemical Spot Test Method (Colorimetric Screening Method), 15 March 2003. U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH.
https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-154/pdfs/9105.pdf
NIOSH. (2015). Combatting the Dangers of Heavy Metal Contamination: the CDC Can Lead the Way!
https://www.cdc.gov/od/science/technology/techtransfer/successstories/leadwipes.htm
NIOSH. (2018). Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Lead.
https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/lead/default.html

Updated

Feb 13, 2020

Data Source: 
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